Spring is here and it brought the pollen! Control allergies and enjoy the outdoors.

Spring is a beautiful time of year. The flowers bloom, the birds chirp… it’s like we’re all awakening after a long, cold winter. But with the flowers (and birds) comes pollen. And with pollen comes allergies. I don’t want anyone to be afraid to enjoy the beautiful outdoors, so learn to control allergies.

Why treat allergies?

I often hear parents say that they don’t want to give their kids medicine to treat allergies because, well, it’s medicine. They prefer to be natural and the symptoms don’t seem “that bad”.

Before you decide if the symptoms require treatment or not, be sure to recognize all the potential consequences of allergies. It’s not just a runny nose and sneezing.

Allergies can impair sleep (leading to all the problems associated with not enough sleep) in addition to the annoying symptoms of itching, coughing, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes.

Some kids get a crease across their nose from wiping – AKA the “allergic salute”.

Others get purple circles under their eyes called allergic shiners.

For people with asthma, allergies are a known trigger. It’s especially important that people with wheezing tendencies keep up on allergy prevention and treatments.

Some will chronically mouth breathe, which can affect the growth and development of their jaw, lead to bad breath, and increase the risk of cavities. Dr. Deborah Burton, an ear, nose, and throat specialist, discusses these and other consequences of mouth breathing in one of her DrMommaSays blogs.

How do you know it’s allergies?

Learn to diagnose allergies, what to do when you have them and what you risk if you don't treat them.
Learn to diagnose allergies, what to do when you have them and what you risk if you don’t treat them.

Allergies can cause runny nose, headache, congestion, sneezing, watery eyes, itching eyes, sore throat, itchy throat, and itchy skin. Not all symptoms need to be present.

An upper respiratory tract infection (AKA common cold) can also cause a runny nose, headache, congestion, sneezing, watery eyes, and sore throat. The difference is the cold symptoms tend to not last as long as allergies. There also could be a fever, body aches, and a general feeling of “not well” with viral infections.

Seasonal allergies tend to follow a seasonal pattern, so they can be easier to recognize than allergies to indoor allergens.

These days it’s easy to track pollen counts online. If you realize that every day the counts for one type of tree or grass is elevated you have symptoms, that’s strong support that you’re allergic to that plant.

Of course, it’s possible to get a cold on top of your allergies, which adds to the confusion sometimes.

Treatments to control allergies

It is best to treat before the symptoms get bad. Treatments include not only medicines, but also limiting exposure.

Use what you can to prevent and treat allergies, which most often means using more than one of the following treatments.

Limiting Exposure:  

Limiting exposure can help decrease symptoms.

Avoid Bringing allergens into the Home

Remove clothing and shoes that have pollen on them when entering the house to keep pollen off the couch, beds, and carpet.

Keep the windows closed. Sorry to those who love the “fresh air” in the house. For those who suffer from allergies, this is just too much exposure!

Beloved pets cause unique issues

If someone’s allergic to animals or suffers from year long symptoms, learn if your family pet is a problem.

When you have pets that go outdoors and then into the home, bathe them regularly.

Don’t let pets on the couch or beds and keep them out of the bedrooms of allergic sufferers.

If you know a family member is allergic to an animal, don’t get a new pet of this type!

If you already have a loved pet someone in the home, consider allergy shots against this type of animal. Talk to your pediatrician and consider a trip to an allergist.

Wash and clean

Wash towels and sheets weekly in hot water.

Vacuum and dust weekly. Consider cleaning home vents. Consider hard flooring in bedrooms instead of carpeting.

Wash stuffed animals and other toys regularly and discourage allergic children from sleeping with them.

There are many types of air filters that have varying benefits and costs. For information on air filters see the Environmental Protection Agency’s interactive page on indoor air quality.

Smoke is a “no”

Keep smoke away. Smoke is an airway irritant and can exacerbate allergy symptoms.

Remember that the smoke dust remaining on hair, clothing, upholstery, and other surfaces can cause problems too, so kids can be affected even if you don’t smoke near them.

And for those of you who vape, it’s not better. We’re still learning the risks  of e-cigarettes because vaping is relatively new, but early data supports staying away from e-cigs!

Wash it off of you!

Wash hair, eyelashes, and nose after exposures — especially before sleep. They all trap allergens and increase the time your body reacts to them.

Learning to rinse your nose

I have found the information and videos in Nasopure.com‘s library to be very helpful. You can teach kids as young as 2 years to wash their noses. Note: I have no financial ties to Nasopure… I just love the product and website!

I am an Amazon Affiliate member, so if you buy from this Amazon link, I do get a small percentage.

If you wear contacts

If itchy eyes are a problem for contact lens wearers, a break from the contacts may help. Talk with your eye doctor if eye symptoms cause problems with your contacts.

Medications

I don’t want kids with outdoor allergies to be afraid to go outside, so taking medicines to keep the symptoms at bay while out can help.

Antihistamines

Antihistamines work to block histamine in the body. Histamine causes the symptoms of allergies, so an antihistamine can help stop the symptoms.

Some people respond well to one antihistamine but not others, so sometimes you must use trial and error to find the right one.

In general I prefer the 12-24 hour antihistamines simply because it’s very difficult to cover well with a medicine that only lasts 4-6 hours, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and they’re less sedating. Long acting antihistamines include loratadine -Claritin (24 hour), fexofenadine- Allegra (12 hour for kids, 24 hour for teens and adults), and cetirizine- Zyrtec (24 hour).

Different antihistamines work better for some than others. Personally loratadine does nothing for me, fexofenadine is okay, but cetirizine is best. I have seen many patients with opposite benefits. You will have to do a trial period of a medicine to see which works best.

If they make your child sleepy, giving antihistamines at bedtime instead of the morning might help.

Prescription antihistamines are available, but usually an over the counter type works just as well and is less expensive. Insurance companies rarely cover the cost of antihistamines these days.

Antihistamine and decongestant combinations

Antihistamine and decongestant combinations are available but are not usually recommended. Decongestants can cause dizziness, heart flutters, dry mouth, and sleep problems, so use them sparingly and only in children over 4 years of age.

Once control of the mucus is achieved, a decongestant isn’t needed. Giving a medicine that isn’t needed just increases the risk without increasing the benefit.

If you need a decongestant initially, you can use one with your usual antihistamine.

Most decongestants on the shelves are ineffective. If you ask the pharmacist for pseudoephedrine, it is available behind the counter. It was replaced by phenylephrine years ago due to concerns of methamphetamine production, but works a little better than phenylephrine.

Decongestants do NOT fix a cold, they only dry up some of the mucus.

Nasal spray steroids and antihistamines

Nasal spray steroids and antihistamines are available over the counter or as a prescription. An office visit to discuss the value of these for your child and proper use is recommended.

Nasal steroids are often the preferred treatment based on effectiveness and tolerability.

If your child resists nose sprays

You can help your kids get used to nasal sprays with saline sprays. Saline is simply salt water, so it is okay to let your kids practice with these without risking any overdose of medication.

Eye Drops

Eye drops can help alleviate eye symptoms.

They are available both as over the counter allergy drops and as prescription allergy eye drops. If over the counter drops fail, make an appointment to discuss if a prescription might help better. Most insurance companies don’t cover prescription allergy eye drops well, so you might want to check your formulary before asking for a prescription. This is usually available on your insurance website after you log in.

If your child resists eye drops

Tips to administer eye drops include washing hands before using eye drops, put the drop on the corner of the closed eye (nose side) and then have the child open his eyes to allow the drop to enter the eye.

Montelukast

Singulair (Montelukast) works to stop histamine from being released into the body.

It helps control both allergies and asthma and is best taken in the evening.

Once a person has been on montelukast for a couple of weeks, they usually don’t need an antihistamine any longer.

Montelukast is available only by prescription, so make an appointment to discuss this if your child might benefit.

Steroids

Steroids decrease allergic inflammation well. These include both oral steroids for severe reactions (such as poison ivy on the face or an asthma attack) and inhaled corticosteroids for the nose (or lungs in asthma).

The nasal steroids are discussed above and are highly recommended for kids and adults who tolerate putting a spray in their nose.

Other steroids require a prescription, so a visit to your provider is recommended to discuss proper use.

What if all of the above isn’t helping to control allergies?

Maybe it’s really not allergies.

There are many things that can seem to be allergies but aren’t. If proper treatment is not working, reconsider the diagnosis.

It’s possible that the allergy treatment is working, but you caught a cold on top of the allergies. Both are common, so they can occur together.

Allergies to things other than foods are rare before 2 years of age. If you’re treating allergies in an infant or toddler, be sure to keep your pediatrician in the loop.

I’ve known people who are treated for years by an allergist for allergies, but when they’re tested due to a poor response, they have no allergies. They might have frequent infections or other irritants like smoke exposure. Learn to control these issues too, starting with good hand washing, avoid touching your face, and avoiding smoke.

Allergy testing

Allergy testing is possible by blood or skin prick testing, but can be costly. Not to mention the fact that kids tend to not like needles, which are used with most testing.

Allergy testing isn’t recommended for most allergy sufferers. It can be used to guide allergy immunotherapy, which involves routine allergy shots. Most suffers don’t need allergy shots, but if you think your child would benefit (and allow them), talk to your doctor.

In most cases I don’t find test results very helpful for environmental allergens because you can’t avoid them entirely. You can limit exposures as discussed above, regardless of test results.

Tracking patterns and symptoms to identify allergies

By tracking seasonal patterns over a few years can identify many of the allergens. You can still treat as needed during this time. Reports of pollen and mold counts are found on Pollen.com.

Rather than testing, note animal exposures and household conditions and any symptoms seen with exposures.

Write symptoms and exposures weekly (or daily). It often doesn’t take long to see patterns. Testing is important if allergy shots are being considered.

Need help tracking allergy symptoms? There’s an app for that! Here’s one review I found of allergy apps. I don’t have any personal experience of any, so please put your favorite in the comments below to help others!

Wrong medicine or wrong dose.

Some people have more severe allergies and need more than one treatment. I personally use eye drops, nasal spray, and an oral antihistamine in addition to nasal washes and daily (sometimes twice daily) showers when my allergies flare.

Switching types of medication or adding another type of medicine might help. If you need help deciding which medicines are best for your child, schedule an office visit with your PCP for an exam and discussion of symptoms.

Some kids outgrow a dose and simply need a higher dose of medicine as they grow. Talk to your pharmacist or physician to decide if a higher dose is indicated.

Is Nothing working?

Consider allergy shots (immunotherapy) to desensitize against allergens if symptoms persist despite your best efforts as above.

Schedule an appointment with your pediatrician to discuss if this is an option for your allergy sufferer.

Learn to diagnose allergies, what to do when you have them and what you risk if you don't treat them.
Learn to diagnose allergies, what to do when you have them and what you risk if you don’t treat them.



How long will a cough or cold last?

How long will a cough or cold last?

I get this question all the time.

Most people want it gone now. (Or more likely, last week.)

Unfortunately despite our medical advancements over the years, we still have no cure for colds and coughs. Viruses do not get killed by antibiotics, and most colds and coughs are caused by viruses.

cough and colds last weeksI don’t hold back on advice when I see kids with disturbing colds and coughs. I sympathize with the child and parents. I’ve been there: both as a person with a bad cold and as a parent watching my kids struggle with colds. But I still can’t make them better faster.

We have our standard instructions:

  • Fluids (water)
  • Rest
  • Saline washes to the nose
  • Blow the mucus out. If a child’s too young to blow his nose well, parents can suck the snot right out.
  • Honey for children over 12 months of age
  • Prop the head up during sleep
  • Prevent spread
But then we still have the original question: How long will a cough or cold last?
One of my favorite graphs depicting the timeline of a typical upper respiratory infection is from research done in the 1960’s, but since we don’t have any better treatment now than we did back then, I find it to hold true to what I experience when I get a cold and what I see in the office.
how long will cold and flu symptoms last
Days of Illness

Notice how the symptoms are most severe during the first 1-5 days, but still persist for at least 14 days. And at 14 days 20% of people still have a cough, 10% still have a runny nose. And the lines aren’t going down fast at that point, they both seem to linger.

A more recent review of medical studies showed that the many symptoms of illness linger for much longer than parents want to accept. From this study:
earache, sore throat, croup, bronchiolitis, cough, common cold
* Earache range 7-8 days, Sore throat 2-7 days

Bear in mind that children tend to get about 8 colds per year, often in the fall/winter months, so a second virus might start developing symptoms right as the first cold is finally going away.

There’s an important distinction between back to back illnesses versus a sinus infection requiring antibiotics. This is why doctors and nurses ask (and re-ask) about symptoms. The history and timeline of symptoms are very important in a proper diagnosis.

It isn’t the color of the mucus (really!) We don’t want people to unnecessarily take antibiotics. That leads to bacterial resistance, side effects of medicine, and increased cost to families.

So if you’re struggling with cough and cold symptoms in your house, follow these instructions.

To help determine when your child needs to be seen:

Urgently or emergently:

If your child is breathing more than 60 times in a minute, ribs are going in and out with breaths, or the belly is sucking in and out with each breath, your child needs to be seen in the office, at urgent care or an ER (preferably one that specializes in children), depending on time of day and your location. Another complication that kids must be seen for is dehydration. Dehydration may be present when the child is unable to take in enough fluids to make urine at least 4 times a day for infants, twice a day for older children.

Routine office visits:

If your child has ear pain, trouble sleeping, or general fussiness but is otherwise breathing comfortably and well hydrated, he should be seen during regular office hours. If the cold is worsening after 10-14 days, bring your child in during regular office hours.

To help determine where your child should be seen, check out my old blogs on What to do After Hours and Urgent Cares for Routine Illnesses.

More reading:

Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children Aged 1 to 18 Years

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The flu shot doesn’t work

I’ve seen a few kids this season who have influenza despite the fact that they had the vaccine. When the family hears that the flu test is positive (or that symptoms are consistent with influenza and testing isn’t done), they often say they won’t do the flu shot again because it didn’t work.

flu shot ineffectiveHow do they know it isn’t working?

Influenza can be deadly.

Most of the kids I’ve seen with flu who have had the shot aren’t that sick. Yes, they have a fever and cough. They aren’t well.

But they’re not in the hospital.

They’re not dying.

They tend to get better faster than those who have unvaccinated influenza.

Some kids still get very sick with influenza despite the vaccine.

That’s why there’s surveillance to see how it’s working.

When FluMist was determined to not be effective, it was removed from the market.

Studies are underway to make a new type of flu vaccine that should be more effective.

We know the shot isn’t perfect, but it’s better than nothing.

Maybe if you weren’t vaccinated you’d be a lot sicker.

Maybe you were exposed to another strain of flu and didn’t get sick at all.

I think it’s still worth it to get vaccinated each year (until they come up with a vaccine that lasts several seasons).

If everyone who’s eligible gets vaccinated against the flu, herd immunity kicks in and it doesn’t spread as easily. Historically only around 40% of people are vaccinated each year against influenza. We know that to get herd immunity we need much higher numbers.

Shot fears…

If your kids are scared of shots, check out Vaccines Don’t Have to Hurt As Much As Some Fear.

Don’t rely on Tamiflu to treat flu symptoms once you’ve gotten sick.

Tamiflu really isn’t that great of a treatment. It hasn’t been shown to decrease hospitalization or complication rates. It shortens the course by about a day. It has side effects and can be expensive. During flu outbreaks it can be hard to find.

Prevention’s the best medicine.

Learn 12 TIMELY TIPS FOR COLD AND FLU VIRUS PREVENTION.

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Fever Is…

Fever is scary to parents.

Parents hear about fever seizures and are afraid the temperature will get so high that it will cause permanent brain damage. In reality the way a child is acting is more important than the temperature. If they’re dehydrated, having difficulty breathing,  or are in extreme pain, you don’t need a thermometer to know they’re sick.

Fever is uncomfortable.

Fever can make the body ache. It’s often associated with other pains, such as headache or muscle aches. Kids look miserable when they have a fever. They might appear more tired than normal. They breathe faster. Their heart pounds. They whine. Their face is flushed. They are sweaty. They might have chills, causing them to shake.

Fever is often feared as something bad.

Parents often fear the worst with a fever:

Is it pneumonia? Leukemia? Ear infection?

Fever is good in most cases. 

In most instances, fever in children is good. It’s a sign of a working immune system.

Fever is often associated with decreased appetite.

This decreased food intake worries parents, but if the child is drinking enough to stay hydrated, they can survive a few days without food. Kids typically increase their intake when feeling well again. Don’t force them to eat when sick, but do encourage fluids to maintain hydration.

Fever is serious in infants under 3 months, immunocompromised people, and in underimmunized kids.

These kids do not have very effective immune systems and are more at risk from diseases their bodies can’t fight. Any abnormal temperature (both too high and too low) should be completely evaluated in these at risk children.

Fever is inconvenient.

I hate to say it, but for many parents it’s just not convenient for their kids to be sick. A big meeting at work. A child’s class party. A recital. A big game or tournament.  

Whatever it is, our lives are busy and we don’t want to stop for illness. Unfortunately, there is no treatment for fever that makes it become non-infectious immediately, so it is best to stay home. Don’t expose others by giving your child ibuprofen and hoping the school nurse won’t call.

Fever is a normal response to illness in most cases.

Most fevers in kids are due to viruses and run their course in 3-5 days. Parents usually want to know what temperature is too high, but that number is really unknown (probably above 106F). The height of a fever does not tell us how serious the infection is. The higher the temperature, the more miserable a person feels. That’s why it’s recommended to use a fever reducer after 102F. The temperature doesn’t need to come back to normal, it just needs to come down enough for comfort.

Fever is most common at night.

Unfortunately most illnesses are more severe at night. This has to do with the complex system of hormones in our body. It means that kids who seem “okay” during the day have more discomfort over night. This decreases everyone’s sleep and is frustrating to parents, but is common.  

Fever is a time that illnesses are considered most contagious.

During a fever viral shedding is highest. It’s important to keep anyone with fever away from others as much as practical (in a home, confining kids to a bedroom can help). Wash hands and surfaces that person touches often during any illness. Continue these precautions until the child is fever free for 24 hours without fever reducers. (Remember that temperatures fluctuate, so a few hours without fever doesn’t prove that the infection is resolved.)

Fever is an elevation of normal temperature.

Normal temperature varies throughout the day and depends on the location the temperature was taken and the type of thermometer used. Digital thermometers have replaced glass mercury thermometers due to safety concerns with mercury. Ear thermometers are not accurate in young infants or those with wax in the ear canal. Plastic strip thermometers and pacifier thermometers give a general idea of a temperature, but are not accurate.

To identify a true fever, it’s important to note the degree temperature as well as location taken. (A kiss on the forehead can let most parents know if the child is warm or hot, but doesn’t identify a true fever and therefore the need to isolate to prevent spreading illness.) I never recommend adding or subtracting degrees to decide if it is a fever. You can look at a child to know if they’re sick.

The degree of temperature helps guide if they can go to school or daycare, not how you should treat the child.

Fevers in children are generally defined as temperatures above 100.4 F (38 C).

Fever is rarely dangerous, though parents often fear the worst.

This is the time of year kids will be sick more than normal. Kids get sick more than adults. With each illness there can be fever (though not always).

What you can do:
  • Be prepared at home with a fever reducer and know your child’s proper dosage for his or her weight.
  • Use fever reducers to make kids comfortable, not to bring the temperature to normal.
  • Push water and other fluids to help kids stay hydrated.
  • Teach kids to wash their hands and cover coughs and sneezes with their elbows.
  • Stay home when sick to keep from spreading germs. It’s generally okay to return to work/school when fever – free 24 hours without the use of fever reducers.
  • Help kids rest when sick.
  • If the fever lasts more than 3-5 days, your child looks dehydrated, is having trouble breathing, is in extreme pain, or you are concerned, your child should be seen. A physical exam (and sometimes labs or x-ray) is needed to identify the source ofillness in these cases.  A phone call cannot diagnose a source of fever.
  • Any infant under 3 months or immunocompromised child should be seen to rule out serious disease if the temperature is more than 100.5.

Menthol for Sore Throat, Colds and Coughs… Should we use it?

I am often asked about the use of Vick’s Vapo Rub (or other menthol products and refer to all brands in this post).

We see menthol for vaporizer dispensers, in cough drops, and the good ole jar of rub that mom used on our chests when we were sick.

But should we use it?

Cough drops

Menthol is a mild anesthetic that provides a cooling sensation when used as a cough drop. It is basically a local anesthetic which can temporarily numb the nerves in the throat that are irritated by the cold symptoms and provide some relief.

Interestingly, menthol is added to cigarettes in part to numb the throat so new smokers can tolerate the smoke irritation better. Hmmm…

Menthol cough drops must be used as a lozenge and not chewed or swallowed because the menthol must slowly be exposed to the throat for the numbing effect. They are not recommended for young children due to risk of choking.

Science lacks strong evidence, but the risk to most school aged children is low and it is safer than most other cough medicines. For these reasons, I use the “if it seems to help, use it” rule for children not at risk of choking.

Do not let any child go to sleep with one in his mouth. First, he might choke if he falls asleep with it in his mouth. Second, we all need to brush teeth before sleeping to avoid cavities!

Vaporized into the air

When it is put into a vaporized solution, menthol can decrease the feeling of need to cough.

Vaporized menthol should never be used for children under 2 years of age. They have smaller airways, and the menthol can cause increased mucus production, which plugs their narrow airways and may lead to respiratory distress.

Infants can safely use vaporizers (and humidifiers) that put water into the air without any added medications.

The rubs for the skin

We’ve all seen the social media posts supporting putting the menthol rubs on the feet during sleep to help prevent cough. That has never made sense to me. The link provided discusses that it is not a proven way to use the rubs.

Menthol studies show variable effectiveness. It has been shown to decrease cough from baseline (but the placebo worked just as well) and did not show improved lung function with  spirometry tests (but people stated they could breathe better) in this interesting study.  In other words, people felt better, but there really was no objective improvement.

Putting menthol rubs directly under the nose may actually increase mucus production according to a study published in Chest. In children under age 2, this could result in an increase in more plugging of their more narrow airways.

There might be a concern with putting any petrolatum based product in or near the nose. There is a more recent study that does show children ages 2-11 years with cough sleep better with a menthol rub on the chest.

Note: There is a Vick’s BabyRub that does not contain menthol. Its ingredients have not been proven to be effective. Some of the ingredients have their own concerns, but that does not fall into this discussion.

Cautions

Menthol products should never be used in children under 2 years of age. It can actually cause more inflammation in their airways and lead to respiratory distress.

Photo source: Angel caboodle at English Wikipedia [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons 

Camphor is another ingredient along with menthol in the rubs. It can be deadly if swallowed.

It has been known to cause seizures in children under 36 months when absorbed or ingested in high concentrations.

Menthol rubs in the US contain camphor in a concentration that’s felt to be safe if applied to intact skin in those over 2 years old.

Mucus membranes absorb medicines more readily than intact skin. Do not apply to nostrils, lips, or broken skin.

Do not allow children to handle these rubs. Apply only below their necks to intact skin.

Many people using these rubs experience skin irritation. Discontinue use if this happens.